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Full text of "ARMY-NAVY INSTRUMENTATION PROGRAM (ANIP)"

ARMY- NAVY INSTRUMENTATION PROGRAM 



ES-29101 



ARMY-NAVY INSTRUMENTATION PROGRAM 

ILLUSTRATED 
NARRATIVE 

PROM 
THE FILM 

CONTRACT Nonr 10T6(00) 



EL SEGUNOO DIVISION, EL SEGUNDO. CALIFORNIA 



/ 




Page 1 



SUMMARY 



The Army-Navy Instrumentation Program (ANIP) was 
conceived in 1953 for the purpose of providing a new 
concept of flight data instrumentation which would make 
possible the optimum use of performance capability and 
true all weather operation of aircraft. 

One of the objectives of ANIP was to unburden the 
pilot by providing carefully designed, artifically gen- 
erated, more natural displays. 

The concept as described in the following pages is 
seen to be applicable to many forms of man-machine sys- 
tems. Developments of the long range program would appear 
to be applicable to surface vessels, submarines and ground 
vehicles as well as aircraft. 



Page 2 



TABLE OP CONTENTS 



SUBJECT 

Summary 

Contents 

Text 



P AGE 

1 

2 
3 





FIGURES 




NO. 


TITLE 


PAGE 


1. 


Coordination Loop 


4 




Today's Cockpit 


5 


3. 


Aligned Instruments 


6 


4. 


Combined Instruments 


7 


5. 


Man-Machine System 


9 


6. 


Feasibility Chart 


11 


7. 


Typical Flight Profile 


13 


8. 


Internal Reference Windshield 


15 


9. 


External Reference-Horizon 


16 


10. 


External Reference Linear Perspective 


17 


11. 


External Reference Textured Surface 


18 


12. 


External Reference Sky Texture 


19 


13. 


External Reference Air-to- Air Orientation 


20 


14. 


Flight Path in the Sky (l) 


21 


15. 


Flight Path in the Sky (2) 


22 


16. 


Irregular Pattern-Textured Surface 


24 


17. 


Irregular Pattern-Textured Surface 


25 


18. 


Navigation Information Display 


26 


19. 


Flat } Transparent Cathode Ray Tube 


27 



Page 3 



This paper presents a concept and methodology for In- 
tegrating man and machine. It will show what has "been done 
and what may he done to simplify and Improve the relation- 
ship between man, the operator, and the machine he controls. 
It will show the concepts and methods being employed In this 
continuing effort. 

On April nine, nineteen fifty-three, at the request of 
the United States Navy, some two-hundred-fifty representatives 
of the aircraft and Instrument manufacturing industries and 
from the Army, Navy, Marine Corps and Air Force, attended a 
conference in Washington, D.C. It was disclosed that the 
Office of Naval Research and the Bureau of Aeronautics had 
initiated an industry-wide program aimed at the development 
of an Integrated presentation of flight data. It was believed 
by the Navy, the necessary coordination could best be performed 
by an agency which would have design responsibility for the 
total system. Invitations had been forwarded to qualified 
prime contractors in the fixed and rotary wing fields. 

The Douglas Aircraft Company's El Segundo Division was 
selected as coordinator for the fixed wing portion of the 
program. Shortly after this, the Army joined the Navy in 
sponsoring the program. (Fig, 1.) 

Later, as a result of promising work in the fixed wing 
field, the rotary wing phase of the program was initiated and 
the Bell Helicopter Corporation was chosen as coordinator. 

At the outset, it was recognized that man has basic 
limitations. Man-made machines will never duplicate man's 
brain and his ability to assume command in emergencies, yet 
today's high performance vehicles confront the operator with 
complex mechanisms and instrumentation. (Fig. 2.) His display 
panel presents an array of instruments which cannot be read 
as an entire unit. The operator must scan, choose and in- 
terpret numerous bits of information before he can Initiate 
the appropriate control responses In the performance of his 
mission, causing undue interpretation and Integration by the 
operator and resulting, many times, in errors, disorientation, 
accidents, aborted missions and deterioration of morale. 

Taking the aircraft as an example, attempts have been 
made to align instruments (Fig. 3) to reduce the pilot's task, 
and attempts have been made to combine instruments, (Fig. 4) 
but still the problem persists. An entirely new concept of 
instrument presentation would have to be conceived. Without 
demanding maximum mental interpretation, translation and in- 
tegration, the presentation should give the pilot direct 




FIGURE 1 



TODAY'S COCKPIT 



FIGURE 2 



Page 8 



responses to the questions he needs answered. Man will al- 
ways remain a link in the system, whether aircraft, missile, 
submarine, ship, or ground vehicle. Therefore, the initial 
step in the program must he to create the machine around the 
man. (Fig. 5) 

Under the man-machine approach, the operator would be 
concerned only with those tasks he performs most efficiently. 
To this end, man must have available to him certain basic in- 
formation. His immediate surroundings must conform with the 
physiological limitations of his body. One of the building 
blocks of the generalized system is that of the sensors, or 
data gathering elements. Constituted of these fundamental 
groups: electromagnetic, temperature, force, inertial, physi- 
cal quantity and geometry, the sensors would send information 
to a central computer, which would select information necessary 
for operator displays and control of the vehicle. Data pro- 
cessing and memory storage for the entire system would be in- 
tegrated into a single device, resulting, in greater reliability, 
major savings in weight, space and power consumption. The com- 
puter would feed information into display, amplifying equipment 
which would drive the operator's display to present data ful- 
filling information requirements. . .thus enabling the operator 
to take appropriate action for the situation. Simultaneously, 
the computer provides information to satisfy the requirement 
of the automatic portion of the control loop. The combined 
control signals are amplified and fed into the machine. It 
is readily seen that neglect of either man or machine require- 
ments will compromise the overall system efficiency. 

The programs' Initial conception primarily concerned air- 
craft, but it soon became evident the ultimate goals would be 
applicable to all man-made vehicles... to helicopters, to 
missiles, to submarines, in tanks, or in surface ships. 

As the application of the long range program expanded, it 
became apparent that new methods had to be established if major 
progress was to be made. To establish effective direction of 
the diverse scientific and engineering talents involved, a suit- 
able information flow structure was created. 

The users of these systems develop operational require- 
ments from their experience in the natural world. These re- 
quirements are divided into two groups: Information require- 
ments necessary to the operator in accomplishment of his mission, 
and — machine or performance requirements to be used by the 
coordinator in directing the overall team effort. Since the 




DISPLAY 
AMPLIFIER 




DISPLAYS 



COMPUTER 



QUICKENING SIGNALS 




CONTROL FORCE SIGNAL 




MAN 



MECHANISMS 
AMPLIFIER 



ENVIRONMENT 
AND 
ESCAPE 




CONTROL 
FORCE 



POWER 

BOOSfer*** 




MACHINE 

MAN MACHINE SYSTEM 




> 



Page 10 



Man-machine system must meet these operational requirements, 
the information requirements for the man must be established 
by questioning the operators who control the system. 

Conducted by the coordinator for each phase of operation, 
the questioning is designed to differentiate the fundamental 
requirements needed by all operators, from those based upon 
unsubstantiated opinion. 

The requirements are transmitted by the coordinator, along 
with system performance requirements, to human factors analysts 
who determine what functions are best performed by man in the 
total system, and the best displays and controls to enable man 
to perform those tasks. The Investigations seek an optimum 
solution for the man and are not confined by possible limita- 
tions In electronic and mechanical equipment. 

Display and control requirements determined by the human 
engineering team are used in conjunction with the overall system 
performance requirements as a basis for studies by engineering 
physicists, to determine what data must be sensed, the relation- 
ship which must exist between sensors, display and machine con- 
trol signals, and whether these requirements can be met with 
techniques existing, or developmental techniques, or techniques 
still in the research stage. In addition, the research and 
development results needed before the system can be constructed, 
must be outlined. (Pig. 6) 

The results of the feasibility studies are issued to in- 
dustry for the development of specific elements in the man- 
machine loop, and for required research. The research results 
constitute advance in the state of the art to be considered 
by future feasibility studies. 

The sub-systems and components as developed, are inte- 
grated Into operable systems to be evaluated by the operators 
working with the coordinator. Objective tests and evaluations 
are performed to determine whether system and Information re- 
quirements have been met. The tests result in recommendations 
to the operating activity procuring agencies for production 
development and also provide new data for further human en- 
gineering studies. 

In following a small portion of the total operational re- 
quirements through the implementation system, we can witness 
how the interaction of the various team groups brings about 
the integration of this portion Into a flight system. 



LONG RANGE FEASIBILITY STUOY SUMMARY CONTRACT NONR 1076 100) 



PHASE OF 
FLIGHT 



NORMAL 
FLIGHT 



PILOT INFORMATION 
REQUIREMENTS 



• SPATIAL 
OHIENTATlON 



•ALTITUDE a 
RATE OF CLIMB 

SEE ALSO; 
NAVIGATION ■ 
ALTITUDE 



HUMAN ENGINEERING 
DISPLAY REQUIREMENTS 



INTERNAL 
REFERENCE 

EXTERNAL 
REFERENCE 

TEXTURE 
□RAO LENT 



INTEGRATION 



DISPLAY PHYSICAL 
REQUIREMENTS 
AND MEDIUM 



DISPLAY VISUAL 
CHANGE 



ALSO SEE NAVIGATION 



ANGLE BETWEEN 
AIRCRAFT LONG- 
ITUDINAL AXIS 
AND REFERENCE 
HEADING (TRUE 
NORTH OR GRID 
REFERENCE! IN 
A PLANE TANGENT 
TO THE EARTH 
SURFACE DIRECT- 
LY BENEATH 
AIRCRAFT 



■ HORIZONTAL BAROMETRIC 
PLANES EVERY, SOOO', COOED 

■ MINIMUM SAFE ALTITUDE 
PLANE CODED WITH RANDOM 
CIRCLES 

• DISPLAY MEDIUM SAME AS 
FOR PREVIOUS NORMAL 
FLIGHT REQUIREMENTS 

•SEA LEVEL PLANE OR 
GROUND DATUM lOOO' 
SQUARES WITH CIRCLES OR 
DOTS LOCATED 20' APART 

•OTHER PLANES HAVE GRID, 
POSSIBLY CODED BY 
ALTITUDE 



ALTITUOE ABOVE 
MEAN TERRAIN 
ANO/OR PRESS- 
URE ALTITUDE 



UNIFORM MOTION 
OF DISPLAY 
FIELD ACROSS 
DISPLAY MEDIUM 




COMPUTATION 



3»- . 



... ALTITUOE 

TEXTURE GRADIENT 
BECOMES LESS 
DENSE ST HORIZON 
MORE DENSE AT 
TUBE BASE FOR 
INCREASE IN 
ALTITUDE; TEXTURE 
ELEMENTS 
DECREASE IN 
SIZE WITH 
ALTITUDE INCREASE 
UP TO 5000', AT 
WHICH POINT 
ALTITUDE DISPLAY- 
ED RETURNS TO 
ZERO fl CODE 
CHANGES 




CODED 
ALTITUDE DISPLAYS 




K n sec ot 



3d " UK. L' 



■L-k, 



H ■ DISTANCE FROM AIRCRAFT 
TO DISPLAYED PLANE 



TRANSMISSION 
LINK 



•360" INFORMATION 
R 8 D REQUIRED 
(DAC 74 4 762B) 

•VIDEO SCAN R&D 
REQUIRED 



R a D REQUIRED IN 
THESE AREAS 

■ (TERRAIN! 

PULSE TIME DELAY 

OR PHASE SHIFT 

• IBARO.I VARIABLE 
INDUCTION , RESISTANCE 
OR CAPACITANCE 
TRANSDUCER 

. ACCELERATION 
VARIABLE R,L, OR C 

• VIDEO SCAN ft 6 D 
REQUIRED 



DISPLAY CONVERSION 
CIRCUITRY 



• SCREEN SWEEP 
INTENSITY MODULATION 



• CODED IMAGE 
STORAGE OR GENERA- 
ION 

R S D REQUIRED 



•SCREEN SWEEP 
INTENSITY MODULATION 



•CODED IMAGE 
STORAGE OR GENERA- 



•OAC 7940S2A 

•CENTRAL COMPUTER 

GIVES "H" SIGNAL 

TO OISPLAY GENERATOR 



•VERTICAL , 
ATION IF REQUIRED - 
IMPORTANT TO 
ELIMINATE LAG IN 
P„ SYSTEM 



TRUE NORTH OR 
REFERENCE HEAD- 
ING STABLE REFER- 
ENCE 



(DAC 7553S25! 



• ELECTRO-MAGNETIC 
OAC 755A803 



( D AC 7A4790I) 

• VERTICAL ACCELER- 
ATION ON STABLE 
PLATFORM (DAC 
7SS3925) 



FIGURE 6 



Page 12 



Operational activities determined that the majority of 
combat missions can be broken down Into a number of phases 
such as take-off and climb, rendezvous, cruise and navigation, 
strike, traffic control and landing. (Fig. 7) Although, for 
a number of important purposes, it has been found that all of 
these phases had the same requirements, it was necessary for 
the coordinator to question the pilots, on each phase, to estab- 
lish whether significant differences existed. 

To uncover the fundamental requirements, it was found 
that a unique method of interrogation had to be utilized. It 
was found necessary to continue to ask "why" after each state- 
ment by the pilot, until the interrogator's "why" questioned 
the validity of the objective, or until the answer could stand 
unchallenged. It was found, in this instance, that among the 
pilot's primary needs was not a compass, not a vertical gyro, 
but his orientation with respect to the ground plane . . . spatial 
orientation. 

This method of interrogation was employed with a sizeable 
number of pilots to determine the basic information required 
for each flight phase, until a list of information requirements 
was unequivocally established. Since the program's inception, 
no major change has been found necessary in this list, demon- 
strating that this method of questioning reveals fundamental 
information requirements. 

The list of information requirements was distributed to 
a group of human engineers, each having been assigned specific 
phases of flight to study. Their task was to determine the 
methods by which the information would best be displayed for 
the pilot to operate his aircraft with maximum efficiency and 
minimum mental interpretation, resulting in minimum training 
requirements. 

To determine the effectiveness of the display, it was 
necessary to establish a yardstick for comparison. Initially, 
no attempt was made to design an optimum system, but rather to 
design a system which would be adequate to permit the pilot to 
operate his aircraft under instrument conditions as effectively 
as under ideal contact conditions. This would then give a 
point of reference from which to continue the optimum display 
and control system determinations. 

Since pilots are generally capable of operating quite 
effectively under ideal contact conditions, the human engineers 
had to determine how the visual world provided information to 
the information requirements. In other words, what factors in 



Page 14 



the visual world enable the pilot to operate his aircraft. It 
was established early in the study that there were three basic 
categories of information required throughout all phases of 
flight. Orientation information, or "Where am I and what am I 
doing?" Director information, or "What should I do and when?" 
and quantitative information, or "How am I doing?" 

A pilot judges his relationship to space and time under 
contact conditions, primarily by reference to visual cues. One 
important visual cue was found to be an Internal reference, 
which permits the pilot to regard himself and his aircraft as a 
single unit. Such a reference normally is available to the 1 pilot 
in the form of a windshield. (Fig. 8) A second Important visual 
cue Is external reference. To the pilot, one of the most common 
external references is the horizon. (Fig. 9) It enables him to 
determine the relationship of his aircraft to external objects. 
This information alone, quite often gives rise to misinterpre- 
tations. Parallel lines, apparently converging represent linear 
perspective, (Fig. 10) helping the pilot to judge angular and 
altitude changes as witnessed in a dive. The texture of a 
reference surface is used by the pilot to determine slant of 
the surface, altitude and distance. (Fig. 11) This powerful 
visual cue Is sufficient in itself to establish orientation 
without reference to the horizon. A textured surface represent- 
ing the sky, composed of a distinctly different pattern from 
the ground pattern, provides orientation when the ground plane is 
not available. (Fig. 12) In air-to-air orientation, the closer 
of two similar aircraft would appear to be larger, indicating 
size is also an important cue. (Fig. 13) Movement over the sur- 
face results in an apparent distortion of the visual field, and 
this is known as motion parallax* Motion parallax provides a 
compelling cue to distance, speed, and direction of motion. 

By combining the visual cues abstracted from the real 
world, an artificial model can be created which for purposes 
of orientation is perceptibly equivalent to the real world. A 
display created from this model may be called a contact analogue. 

The real world does not, in general, contain command or 
director information. However, since mission objectives require 
operations about all 3 axes, such commands may be expressed in 
terms of desired flight path in space. Director information 
could be achieved in a manner compatible with cues for basic 
orientation. With the addition of such a flight path to the 
contact analogue deviations from the command course and altitude 
become immediately apparent. (Figs. 14 and 15) Paths may be 
constructed for various maneuvers such as traffic control, 




FIGURE 9 



PAGE 17 




FIGURE 10 



PAGE 18 




FIGURE 11 




I 



PIODBE 13 



PAGE 21 




PAGE 22 




Page 23 



rendezvous, strike, climb out, roll and landing. It is not 
necessary for the contact analogue to present a surface ruled 
into a regular grid. It" is believed that for some cases the 
optime pattern might take other forms. (Fig. 16 and 17) 

In addition to the contact analogue, a display represent- 
ing information on an appropriate scale is required to fulfill 
navigation, cruise, and tactical planning. Information con- 
cerning local geography, present position and heading, targets, 
destinations, flight plan, fuel range remaining and other points 
of tactical interest, could be integrated into such a display. 
{Pig. 18) The requirements for the tactical situation display 
and additional quantitative information have yet to be fully 
determined, but work is in progress In these areas. 

The detailed display requirements for the contact analogue 
and situation display having been established were distributed 
by the coordinator in the form of specifications, to a number of 
companies with broad experience in the field of electronic sys- 
tems and components development. 

Their task was to determine not how to design specific 
equipment to produce the desired display, but rather to deter- 
mine the system's technical requirements for display, data pro- 
cessing and sensing. Here again, as in previous studies, the 
same approach was taken to establish fundamentals by employing 
the technique of asking why until the basic requirements were 
evolved. 

The technical requirements group determined In this ex- 
ample the need for development of a thin, transparent display 
medium. Additional examination of system and aircraft require- 
ments indicated that one possible solution might be the develop- 
ment of a thin, transparent cathode-ray tube. (Fig. 19) 

Studies of the equations Involved In the changes within 
the display, established the various physical phenomena which 
had to be sensed, the computer requirements, and the techniques 
applicable for the generation of the display. 

Investigation of phenomena capable of meeting these require- 
ments, established the possibility of developing specific sensors. 

The results of the feasibility studies Indicated the need 
for development of circuit concepts, research in materials and 
fabrication processes necessary to meet the requirements of the 
total system. 



PAGE 25 




PAGE 27 




Page 28 



Contracts for the development of sensors, computing ele- 
ments and display media, were awarded as these requirements 
were established in the fixed and rotary wing aircraft pro- 
grams. The search continued in every case to find fundamental 
solutions rather than partial solutions. 

These have "been the concepts and the methods employed in 
the continuing effort to improve the relationship between man 
and the machine he controls. The Army r Navy Instrumentation 
Program, combining the techniques, facilities and investigative 
skills of the aircraft and instrument manufacturers, is moving 
toward the satisfactory completion of this program by adhering 
to the team approach method with uninhibited thinking. 

In summation, the program embodies optimum presentation 
and control for the man-machine system. Applicable not just to 
aircraft but to missiles, ships , submarines, tanks. Industry- 
wide participation, a completely integrated system reducing 
weight, size, maintenance and training time, increased reli- 
ability, a new approach method with the optimum use of talents, 
a program based on objective considerations with the elimination 
of opinions, and development proceeding from logical requirements 
derived from fundamental considerations rather than from undi- 
rected invention. 

In the Army-Navy Instrumentation Program, the problem Is 
stated before a solution is attempted.